Example #4: Measurement Inside Egypt

In a study by the African development bank with the use of the surveys of the Egypt Integrated Household Survey (EIHS), World Food Program (WFP), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Egyptian Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS), figures show that Egypt is the 15th most densely populated country in the world. This population density affects the GDP of the citizens as the unemployment rates are considerably high which causes huge competition within job seekers. The rates were measured with how much each member or family gain per day (GDP) with relativity to the prices of food, housing and clothes. The reason behind unemployment is that many people are uneducated and those who benefit from education don’t find a suitable job that suits their field of study due to the lack of development and renewal in the learning process. This is directly related to poverty because if these people had the suitable environment of learning and a decent way of life they would have found a job more easily and will help in the economic development for the future of a better Egypt. According to the WFP and the Egyptian Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS) survey, which stretches out from 1997, 2001, 2005, 2011 till 2014, it is estimated that more than 22 million Egyptians live in extreme poverty while another 49 percent of Egyptians in Upper Egypt and several governorates cant provide the basic needs of food. The inability to provide the basic elements of everyday food is called food insecurity. An average of 17 percent of Egyptians experienced food insecurity in 2011 compared to 14 percent in 2009. This food insecurity comes as a conclusion of poverty and very low-income rates. Even though many parts of Egypt are not reached by the government due to the fact of very low available infrastructure, the surveys actually covers a respected amount of governorates and areas like upper and lower Egypt and Metropolitan areas and they manage to reach very poor areas which helped in calculating an accurate round figure of poverty lines in Egypt. These surveys are also carried out regularly through different periods of time and it stretches back to 1997. Even though 1997 is considered recent but it was very difficult to collect data before 1997 due to the lack of technology at that time. The surveys didn’t only calculate the poverty lines and food insecurity percentages, instead it also searched the facts causing the growth of poverty in certain areas and it showed that areas with low educated population had the worst poverty line percentages. These areas also suffer lack of services including public transportation, health services and simple recreational areas. They were basically many simple unplanned houses stacked together in a very small area with a huge amount of people.



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